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About the PA | Member Index

Who is Caroline Watt?
Caroline WattCaroline Watt began working as a Research Associate with the Koestler Chair of Parapsychology in 1986. In 1993 she completed a part-time PhD on the topic 'The Relationship Between Performance on a Prototype Measure of Perceptual Defence/Vigilance and Psi Performance' - this work consisted of a conceptual replication and extension of parapsychological research on the relationship between performance on the Defence Mechanism Test and psi performance. Her first degree is in Psychology from St Andrews University (Scotland), which probably explains why her main interest is in psychological aspects of ESP performance.

She is now employed as Senior Research Fellow (acting Head of KPU), and continues with her psychology/parapsychology interest. Her present research is mostly concerned with experimenter and participant expectancy effects, both in parapsychological and also psychological tasks. This research is relevant to the question of replicability in parapsychology and also more broadly to the issue of the complexities of doing research with human participants.

Principally funded by the Koestler Unit, some of her research has also been funded from the Perrott-Warrick Fund of Cambridge University, the Society for Psychical Research, and the IGPP in Freiburg, Germany. She also has funding for collaborative projects with Dr Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire, mostly on the topics of experimenter effects and the psychology of anomalous experiences.

She has given invited talks on psychology and parapsychology to a number of respected institutions, including the Royal Society. Her main reason for being in the field of parapsychology is curiosity.

Affiliations
President of the Parapsychological Association (PA - August 2004-August 2005) and Full Member of the PA and the Society for Psychical Research.  Member of the Scientific Board of the Bial Foundation (Portugal) and on the Organising Committee for the 2006 Bial Foundation Symposium.  She is the Parapsychology Foundation Affiliate for Scotland and a referee for Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Personality and Individual Differences, the Journal of Parapsychology, the European Journal of Parapsychology, and the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research.

Teaching
Undergraduate: She teaches a course on Parapsychology to final year psychology students.  This is a popular course that has received consistently high ratings from students, for overall interest and quality of presentation.  She also teaches two fourth year tutorial groups on Current Issues in Psychology.  She is currently (session 2004-2005) supervising six final year undergraduate projects.  Postgraduate: She is Course Convenor and teaches on a new module in the MSc by Research course, entitled "Methods for the study of anomalies, beliefs and extended communication" (commencing January 2005).  She is currently principal supervisor to three PhD students and assistant supervisor to one.

Publications
Watt, C.A.
(1990). The value of spontaneous cases. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 273-286.

Watt, C.A. (1990-1991). Psychology and Coincidences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 8, 66-84.

Watt, C.A. (1992). Defensiveness and Psi: Problems and Prospects. In L.A. Henkel & G.R. Schmeidler (Eds) Research in Parapsychology 1990. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Watt, C.A. (1993). The Relationship Between Performance on a Prototype Measure of Perceptual Defence/Vigilance and Psi Performance. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Watt, C.A. (1994). Meta-analysis of DMT-ESP studies and an experimental investigation of perceptual defence/vigilance and extrasensory perception. In E.W. Cook & D.L. Delanoy (Eds) Research in Parapsychology 1991. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Watt, C.A. (1994). Making the Most of Spontaneous Cases. In S. Krippner (Ed.) Advances in Parapsychological Research, Volume 7, pp. 77-103. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Watt, C.A. (1994). Extra-Sensory Perception. In R. Cavendish & B. Innes (Eds.) Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish. (book chapter)

Watt, C.A. & Gissurarson, L.R. (1995). Exploring defensiveness and PK performance. European Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 92-101 (Research Note).

Watt, C.A. & Morris, R.L. (1995). The relationships among performance on a prototype indicator of perceptual defence/vigilance, personality, and extrasensory perception. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 635-648.

Delanoy, D.L., Morris, R.L., & Watt, C.A. (1994). A study of free-response ESP performance and mental training techniques. In E.W. Cook & D.L. Delanoy (Eds) Research in Parapsychology 1991. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, pp. 59-63.

Morris, R.L., Dalton, K., Delanoy, D.L., & Watt, C.A. (1995). Comparison of the sender/no sender condition in the ganzfeld. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Durham, NC, pp. 244-259.

Watt, C.A. (1996). Subliminal and Extrasensory Perception. In J. Henry (Ed.) Introduction to Psychical Research. London: Society for Psychical Research, pp. 130-135.

Watt, C.A. (1996). What makes a good psi target? Three studies of forced-choice ESP varying target emotionality and complexity. Journal of Parapsychology, 60, 25-41.

Watt, C.A. (1996). Knowing the unknown: Participants’ insight in three forced-choice ESP studies. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 90, 97-114.

Watt, C.A. (1996). ‘Physics Envy’: The Politics of Parapsychology. An essay-review of Women and Parapsychology: Proceedings of an International Conference edited by L. Coly & R. White. European Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 88-95.

Morris, R.L. & Watt, C.A. (1997). La investigación Parapsicológica en la Cátedra Koestler. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, 8, 147-166.

Watt, C.A., McDermott, Z. & Ravenscroft, J. (1997). Exploring the limits of remote mental interaction: A comparison of blocking versus cooperating strategies. In R. Wiseman (Ed.) Proceedings of the 40th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, Brighton, pp. 464-478. (refereed conference presentation)

Delanoy, D.L., Watt, C.A., Morris, R.L., & Wiseman, R. (1998). A new methodology for free-response ESP testing out with the laboratory: Findings from experienced participants. In N.L. Zingrone, M.J. Schlitz, C.S. Alvarado & J. Milton (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1993, pp. 68-72. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Watt, C.A. (1998). Perceptual defence/vigilance and extrasensory perception: A successful replication study and a comparison of implicit and explicit measures. In N.L. Zingrone, M.J. Schlitz, C.S. Alvarado & J. Milton (Eds), Research in Parapsychology 1993, pp. 120-123. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Watt, C., Ravenscroft, J., & McDermott, Z. (1999). Exploring the limits of direct mental influence: Two studies comparing "blocking" and "co-operating" strategies. Journal for Scientific Exploration, 13, 515-535.

Watt, C. & Nagtegaal, M. (1999). Luck in action? Belief in good luck, psi-mediated instrumental response, and games of chance. Journal of Parapsychology, 63, 229-231. (abstract of refereed conference presentation)

Watt, C. & Ravenscroft, J. (1999). Defensiveness, neuroticism and extrasensory perception. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 93, 341-354.

Wiseman and Watt, 8 Oct 1999, "Soft subjects suffer low esteem", Times Higher Education Supplement.

Wiseman, R. & Watt, C. (1999). Rupert Sheldrake and the Objectivity of Science, Skeptical Inquirer, 23 (5), 61-62. (Follow-Up)

Watt, C. & Wiseman, R. (1999). Rupert Sheldrake and the Objectivity of Science, Journal of Scientific Exploration, 13, 538. (Letter to Editor)

Watt, C. (1998-1999). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena by Dean Radin. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 146-148. (book review).

Watt, C. (1998-1999). Guidelines for Extrasensory Perception Research by Julie Milton and Richard Wiseman. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 137-138. (book review).

Watt, C. (1999). The Future of Psychology: Parapsychology's Role. In Brander, T. et al. (Eds) The Future of Psychology. Amsterdam: Stichting VSPA Ledenservice. (pages 17-20). (book chapter)

Watt, C. (2001). Paranormal Cognition. In R. Roberts & D. Groome (Eds) Parapsychology: The Science of Unusual Experience. London: Arnold. (book chapter) ISBN 0 340 76169 5 (hb) 0 340 76168 (pb)

Sherwood, S. J., Dalton, K., Steinkamp, F., & Watt, C. (2000). Dream clairvoyance study II using dynamic video-clips: investigation of consensus voting judging procedures and target emotionality. Dreaming, 10 (4) 221-236.

Watt, C. & Ravenscroft, J. (2000). A study of non-intentional psi in a reciprocal helping task: Testing PMIR. Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 39-52.

Watt, C. & Nagtegaal, M. (2000). Luck in action? Belief in good luck, psi-mediated instrumental response, and games of chance. Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 19-38.

Watt, C. & Ravenscroft, J. (1999). Defensiveness, neuroticism and extrasensory perception. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 93, 341-354.

Wiseman & Watt, Jan 12 2001, "Why we believe the internet can enhance psychology". Times Higher Education Supplement.

Watt, C., & Brady, C. (2002). Experimenter effects and the remote facilitation of attention focusing: Two studies and the discovery of an artifact. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 49-71.

Watt, C., & Baker, I.S. (2002). Remote facilitation of attention focusing with psi-supportive versus psi-unsupportive experimenter suggestions. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 151-168.

Watt, C., & Wiseman, R. (2002). Experimenter differences in cognitive correlates of paranormal belief, and in psi. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 371-385.

Wiseman, R., Watt, C., Greening, E., Stevens, P., & O’Keeffe, C. (2002). An investigation into the alleged haunting of Hampton Court Palace: Psychological variables and magnetic fields. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 387-408.

Watt, C., Wiseman, R., & Schlitz, M. (2002). Tacit information in remote staring research: The Wiseman-Schlitz interviews. Paranormal Review, 24, 18-25.

Watt, C., & Ramakers, P. (2003). Experimenter effects with a remote facilitation of attention focusing task: A study with multiple believer and disbeliever experimenters. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 99-116.

Wiseman, R., Watt, C., Stevens, P., Greening, E., & O’Keeffe, C. (2003). An investigation into alleged ‘hauntings’. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 195-211.

Watt, C. & Nagtegaal, M. (2004). Reporting of blind methods: An interdisciplinary survey. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 68, 105-114.

Wiseman, R. & Watt, C. (2004).  Measuring superstitious belief: Why lucky charms matter.  Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1533-1541.

Wiseman, R. & Watt, C. (2005).  The psychology of luck.  Psychology Review, 11, 17-19.

Watt, C. (2005).  Psychological factors.  In J. Henry (Ed.) Parapsychology: Research into Exceptional Experiences.  London: Routledge. (book chapter)

Wiseman, R. & Watt, C. (in press) (Eds.)  Parapsychology.  In Library of Psychology series, Ashgate.

Delanoy, D.L., Morris, R.L., & Watt, C.A. A study of free-response ESP performance and mental training techniques. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. (accepted for publication).

 

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