|About the PA | Member Index||Who is Etzel Cardeña?|
I finished my studies in clinical
psychology at the Universidad Iberoamericana in México and after working
professionally in theatre for a couple of years, left to get an MA in clinical
psychology at York University in Toronto, Canada. I had originally chosen York
because a course on the psychology of consciousness was scheduled, but it was
cancelled at the last minute, and after getting my MA I fulfilled a dream by
going to work with
Charles (Charley) Tart,
perhaps the foremost researcher in
altered states of consciousness
and parapsychology. I got an MA and PhD in Personality Psychology at the
University of California, Davis, under Charley, with a dissertation on the
phenomenology of deep states of consciousness. During my Davis years I attended
the Summer Parapsychology Institute at the FRNM (currently Rhine Research
Center) and I have continued attending, but now as a an invited faculty. I also
got an Eileen Garrett scholarship to conduct research possession in Haiti around
that time. From Davis (where I also learned about the conceptual complexities
of consciousness from Thomas Natsoulas), I became a postdoctoral fellow and
resident scholar at Stanford University, where I concentrated on dissociation
(alterations of consciousness related to experiential detachment) and hypnosis
under another great figure in the area, David Spiegel. Since then I have been a
full-time professor in psychology in various universities (including Georgetown
U.), most recently Chair and Director of the Graduate Program at The University
of Texas-Pan American, and currently I am the Thorsen Professor of Psychology
(including parapsychology and hypnosis) at Scandinavia‘s largest and one of its
oldest universities, Lund University where I can supervise doctoral students (for
My areas of expertise include:
These three areas are intimately interrelated, and I
think that parapsychological experiences can be fruitfully studied under the
larger umbrella of consciousness. I also maintain a keen interest in ritual and
I think that my main contributions include the first scholarly book on anomalous experiences published by a mainstream editor (American Psychological Association), the clarification of the nature of deep hypnosis phenomenology, the conceptual and empirical basis for the new DSM-IV diagnosis of Acute Stress Disorder and for the link between acute dissociative reactions and trauma. I am currently carrying out or planning research on:
I think that the study of parapsychology and altered
states of consciousness are basic to the understanding of consciousness and
reality, because they strongly hint that there are alternate and equally valid
ways of perceiving reality, and that there is a realm of interconnectedness (or
embeddedness) that goes beyond the information provided by the senses and by
Below is a selected short bibliography (for a comprehensive list.)
Refereed Books and Edited Monographs
Cardeña, E., & Croyle, K. (Eds.) (2005). Acute
reactions to trauma and psychotherapy: A multidisciplinary and international
perspective. New York: Haworth Press. Also published as special issue of the
Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 6(2).
Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.). (2000). Varieties of anomalous experience: Examining the scientific evidence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Cardeña, E., & Nijenhuis, E. (2000). Embodied sorrow. Special issue on somatoform dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 1.
Kirsch, I., Capafons, A., Cardeña, E., & Amigó, S. (Eds.) (1999). Clinical hypnosis and self-regulation therapy: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Articles and Book Chapters
Cardeña, E. (in press). Anomalous experiences and
Cardeña, E. (in press). Anomalous identity experiences: Mediumship, spirit possession, and dissociative identity disorder (DID, MPD). In L. Coly, C. S. Alvarado, & N. L. Zingrone (Eds.), The Study of Mediumship: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Parapsychology Foundation.
Cardeña, E. (2005). The phenomenology of deep hypnosis: Quiescent and physically active. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 37–59.
Cardeña, E. (2004). Introspection is alive and well: Current methodologies to study conscious experience. Proceedings of the 5th Simpósio da Fundaçao Bial, Porto, 43–54. Portugal: Bial.
Van Ommeren, M., Komproe, I., Cardeña, E., Thapa, S. B., Prasain, D., de Jong, J., & Sharma, B. (2004). Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 192, 313–317.
Cardeña, E. (2004). Professorship in hypnology. The International Society of Hypnosis Newsletter, 28, 27–29. [Reprinted by the Danish Society for Psychical Research]
Cardeña, E., & Gleaves, D. (2003) Dissociative disorders. In S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.). Adult psychopathology & diagnosis (4th Ed.) (pp. 476–505). New York: Wiley.
Cardeña, E. (2002) Review of Parapsychology: The science of unusual experience. Journal of Parapsychology, 195–197.
Cardeña, E. (2001). La psicología de las experiencias anómalas. Psicología Iberoamericana, 9, 46–51.
Gleaves, D.H., May, M. C., & Cardeña, E. (2001). An examination of the diagnostic validity of dissociative identity disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 577–608.
Cardeña, E., Lynn, S. J., & Krippner, S. (2000). Anomalous experiences in perspective In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn., & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience (pp. 3–21). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pekala, R., & Cardeña, E. (2000). Methodological issues in the study of altered states of consciousness and anomalous experiences. In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn., & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience (pp. 47–81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Cardeña, E. (1998). Dissociation and PSI: What are the links? In N. L. Zingrone, M. J. Schlitz, C. S. Alvarado, & J. Milton (Eds.). Research in Parapsychology 1993. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.
Cardeña, E. (1997) The etiologies of dissociation. In S. Powers & S. Krippner (Eds.), Broken images, broken selves (pp. 61–87). New York: Brunner.
Cardeña, E. (1996). “Just floating on the sky.” A comparison of shamanic and hypnotic phenomenology. In R. Quekelbherge & D. Eigner (Eds.) 6th Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie [6th Yearbook of cross-cultural medicine and psychotherapy] (pp. 367–380). Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.
Desmangles, L., & Cardeña, E. (1996). Trance possession and Vodou ritual in Haiti. In R. Quekelbherge & D. Eigner (Eds.) 6th Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie [6th Yearbook of cross-cultural medicine and psychotherapy] (pp. 297–:309). Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung.
Cardeña, E. (1994). The domain of dissociation. In S. J. Lynn & J. W. Rhue (Eds.) Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 15–31). New York: Guilford.
Cardeña, E. (1992) Trance and possession as dissociative disorders. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 29, 283–297.
Cardeña, E., & Spiegel, D. (1991). Suggestibility, absorption, and dissociation: An integrative model of hypnosis. In John F. Schumaker (Ed.) Human suggestibility: Advances in theory, research and application (pp. 93–107). New York: Routledge.
Cardeña, E. (1991) Max Beauvoir. An island in an ocean of spirits. In R. I. Heinze (Ed.), Shamans of the XXth Century (pp. 27–32). New York: Irvington.
Cardeña, E. (1989). The varieties of possession experience. Association for the Anthropological Study of Consciousness Quarterly, 5(2–3), 1–17.