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About the PA | Member Index Who is Rex G. Stanford?
 

Rex G. StanfordDr. Stanford received his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Texas at Austin (1967) with a dissertation in cognitive psychology. During his university training, he held summer research fellowships under J. B. Rhine at Duke University and, later, at the Institute for Parapsychology, where he also did postdoctoral work. He served(s) as President of the Parapsychological Association (PA) in 1973 and 2007, and he has held most of the major offices in that organization. In the PA he has played major roles relative to policy and publications on ethical and social responsibility.

His parapsychological research has emphasized the application of principles and methods of cognitive psychology in order to understand both extrasensory and psychokinetic functioning. He received the 1993 Outstanding Contribution Award of the Parapsychological Association, largely for his theoretical and empirical work on need-serving nonintentional extrasensory response. He has investigated response factors as predictors of ESP-task success and has studied psi-conducive states, including through the use of EEG. He published a major meta-analysis of the hypnosis-ESP literature that carefully reviewed the claims in this area (co-authored by Adam Stein).

He has received grants or awards from the Parapsychology Foundation (New York) and the McDonnell Foundation (St. Louis, MO) and has made parapsychological  or psychological presentations at meetings or forums of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, the Bial Foundation (Portugal), the Parapsychology Foundation (New York), the Parapsychological Association, and Sällskapet för Parapsykologisk Forskning (Society for Parapsychological Research, Stockholm, Sweden).  He has a total of over 130 publications, including 24 book chapters.

He is a strong advocate of the position that the advancement of parapsychology requires hypothesis development based on information from a wide range of sources—from folklore, from field studies, and from the laboratory—always, ultimately, tested by rigorous standards. He also believes that to advance parapsychology, parapsychologists would do well to make methodological, conceptual, and empirical contributions not only to parapsychology but, also, to non-psi scientific domains. Solving the puzzles posed by psi research likely will require advancements in more traditional scientific fields, something to which parapsychologists can and should, in his view, actively contribute.

SYNOPSIS OF SELECTED TOPICS FROM COMPLETE VITA:

CURRENT POSITION:
Professor of Psychology, St. John’s University, Jamaica, NY, teaching cognitive and social psychology (graduate and undergraduate); personality psychology (undergraduate).

CURRENT RESEARCH INTERESTS: (a) The consequences of compatibility (or incompatibility) between gender role norms and gender-role-norm-relevant requirements of the research task (e.g., suggestibility test items), (b) the psychology of intuitive response, (c) factors influencing the experience of involuntariness of response to suggestions, (d) the roles of personality and situational factors, including of their possible interaction, in judgment under uncertainty; and (e) culture and cognition.

EDUCATION:
B.A. (High Honors), 1963, University of Texas at Austin; Ph.D. (Psychology), 1967, University of Texas at Austin with a cognitive (psycholinguistic) emphasis in a program related to personality and social psychology; Doctoral Dissertation, “Conflicting Associative Hierarchies.”

PUBLICATIONS: 24 book chapters, 53 journal articles, 22 book reviews, 30 abstracts, and 2 video presentations for a total of 131 publications.

PRESENTATIONS AT PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY MEETINGS OR CONFERENCES: 69, including at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, the Bial Foundation, the Parapsychology Foundation, the Parapsychological Association, and Sällskapet för Parapsykologisk Forskning (Society for Parapsychological Research, Stockholm, Sweden).

PROFESSIONAL AWARDS: First Annual Mid S. Weiss Award (1973) of the American Society for Psychical Research (granted to the member deemed to have contributed the most to the objectives of the society) and received the 1993 Outstanding Contribution Award of the Parapsychological Association, largely on account of his theoretical and experimental work on an experimentally testable model of nonintentional, but need-subserving, psi-mediated response (psi-mediated instrumental response model, PMIR model).

GRANTS: 11 small grants/awards, consisting of 7 from the Parapsychology Foundation, Inc., New York, NY and 4 from the McDonnell Foundation, St. Louis, MO.

OFFICES IN PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION: Member of Council (later years, Board), 1970-1971, 1973-1974, 1975-1976, 1979, 1985-1986, 1988-1989; Vice-President, 1970, 1971; President, 1973, 2007; President-Elect 2006; Secretary, 1975, 1976, 1979 and 1989; Ethics Officer, 1985-1987; numerous committee assignments; special contributions have been major roles in revision of by-laws and in development of published ethical-professional guidelines; wrote “Ethical and Social Responsibilities of Parapsychologists,” published (1998) by this organization.

Selected (13 of 24) Book Chapters

Stanford, R. G. (1974). Concept and psi [Presidential Address, Parapsychological Association]. In W. G. Roll, R. L. Morris, & J. D. Morris (Eds.), Research in Parapsychology 1973 (pp. 137-162). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Stanford, R. G. (1977). Are parapsychologists paradigmless in psiland? In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), The philosophy of parapsychology [Proceedings of an international conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark, August 25-27, 1976] (pp. 1-16). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Stanford, R. G. (1977). Experimental psychokinesis: A review of diverse perspectives. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of parapsychology (pp. 324-381). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Stanford, R. G. (1977). Conceptual frameworks of contemporary psi research. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of parapsychology (pp. 823-858). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Stanford, R. G. (1981). Cognitive constraints and ESP performance: On testing some implications of a model. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Concepts and theories of parapsychology [Proceedings of an international conference held in New York, December 6, 1980] (pp. 91-98). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc. (The Parapsychology Foundation, Inc. has also published this paper in their Parapsychology Review, 1981, 12(6), 1-5).

Stanford, R. G. (1982). On matching the method to the problem: Word-association and signal-detection methods for the study of cognitive factors in ESP tasks. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Parapsychology and the experimental method [Proceedings of an international conference held in New York, November 14, 1981] (pp., 1-18). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Stanford, R. G. (1984). Recent Ganzfeld-ESP research: A survey and critical analysis. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research: Vol. 4 (pp. 83-111). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Stanford, R. G. (1985). Toward the enhancement of inter-laboratory and inter-experimenter replicability in psi research. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), The repeatability problem in parapsychology (pp. 212-227). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Stanford, R. G. (1987). Ganzfeld and hypnotic-induction procedures in ESP research: Toward understanding their success. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research: Vol. 5 (pp. 39-76). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Stanford, R. G. (1990). An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events: A review of related evidence and concepts from parapsychology and other sciences. In S. Krippner (Ed.), Advances in parapsychological research: Vol. 5 (pp. 54-167). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Stanford, R. G. (1992). Case studies, folklore and personal experiences of investigators: Their roles in experimental research. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (Eds.), Spontaneous psi, depth psychology and parapsychology (pp. 220-256). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Stanford, R. G. (1993). ESP research and internal attention states: Sharpening the tools of the trade. In L. Coly & J. D. S. McMahon (Eds.), Psi research methodology: A reexamination (pp. 189-242). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc.

Stanford, R. G. (1999). Education in parapsychology: An overview. In L. Coly (Ed.), A brief manual for work in parapsychology (pp. 115-133). New York: Parapsychology Foundation, Inc. NOTE: This book chapter is an edited reprint of a paper of the same title originally published in the May/June, 1987, Parapsychology Review, 9 (3), 1-6.

Selected (30 of 53) Journal Papers

Stanford, R. G. (1966). The effect of restriction of calling upon run-score variance. Journal of Parapsychology, 30, 160-172.

Stanford, R. G. (1966). A study of the cause of low run-score variance. Journal of Parapsychology, 30, 236-242.

Stanford, R. G. (1967). Response bias and the correctness of ESP test responses. Journal of Parapsychology, 31, 280-289.

Stanford, R. G. (1969). "Associative activation of the unconscious" and "visualization" as methods for influencing the PK target. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 63, 338-351.

Stanford, R. G. (1970). Extrasensory effects upon "memory."  Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 64, 161-186.

Stanford, R. G., & Lovin, C. (1970). EEG alpha activity and ESP performance. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 64, 375-384.

Stanford, R. G. (1971). EEG alpha activity and ESP performance: A replicative study. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 65, 144-154.

Stanford, R. G., & Palmer, J. P. (1972). Some statistical considerations concerning process-oriented research in parapsychology. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 66, 166-179.

Stanford, R. G. (1973). Extrasensory effects upon associative processes in a directed free-response task. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 67, 147-190.

Stanford, R. G. (1974). An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events: I. Extrasensory events. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 68, 34-57.

Stanford, R. G. (1974). An experimentally testable model for spontaneous psi events: II. Psychokinetic events. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 68, 321-356.

Stanford, R. G., Zenhausern, R., Taylor, A., & Dwyer, M. (1975). Psychokinesis as psi-mediated instrumental response. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 69, 127-133.

Stanford, R. G. (1975). Response factors in extrasensory performance. Journal of Communication, 25, 153-161.

Stanford, R. G., & Associates (1976). A study of motivational arousal and self-concept in psi-mediated instrumental response. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 70, 167-178.

Stanford, R. G. (1978). Toward reinterpreting psi events. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 72, 197-214.

Stanford, R. G. (1981). Are we shamans or scientists? Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 75, 61-70.

Stanford, R. G. (1981). "Associative activation of the unconscious" and "visualization" as methods for influencing the PK target: A second study. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 75, 229-240.

Stanford, R. G., & Roig, M. (1982). Toward understanding the cognitive consequences of the auditory stimulation used for Ganzfeld: Two studies. Journal of The American Society for Psychical Research, 76, 319-340.

Stanford, R. G., & Angelini, R. F. (1984). Effects of noise and the trait of absorption on Ganzfeld ESP performance. Journal of Parapsychology, 48, 85-99.

Stanford, R. G., & Angelini, R. F.. & Raphael, A. J. (1985). Cognition and mood during Ganzfeld: Effects of extraversion and noise versus silence. Journal of Parapsychology, 49, 165-191.

Stanford, R. G. (1987). The status of parapsychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 610-611. (This is an invited, but refereed, commentary, written in response to a personal invitation from the BBS Editor, on two papers discussing the current scientific status of research in parapsychology.)

Stanford, R. G. (1988). Ethics and professional social responsibility in parapsychological research and education. Part I. Parapsychology Review, 19(3), 1-5.

Stanford, R. G. (1988). Ethics and professional social responsibility in parapsychological research and education. Part II. Parapsychology Review, 19(4), 1‑7.

Stanford, R. G., Frank, S., Kass, G. & Skoll, S. (1989). Ganzfeld as an ESP-favorable setting: Part I. Assessment of spontaneity, arousal, and internal attention state through verbal-transcript analysis. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 1-42.

Stanford, R. G., Frank, S., Kass, G. & Skoll, S. (1989). Ganzfeld as an ESP-favorable setting: Part II. Prediction of ESP-task performance through verbal-transcript measures of spontaneity, suboptimal arousal, and internal attention state. Journal of Parapsychology, 53, 95-124.

Stanford, R. G., & Frank, S. (1991). The prediction of Ganzfeld ESP-task performance from session-based verbal indicators of psychological function: A second study. Journal of Parapsychology, 55, 349-376.

Stanford, R. G. (1992). The experimental hypnosis-ESP literature: A review from the hypothesis-testing perspective. Journal of Parapsychology, 56, 39-56. (This is a slightly revised version of the paper presented at the 99th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, August 1991, San Francisco, in the symposium "Hypnosis and Anomalous Experiences," sponsored by Division 30, Psychological Hypnosis.)

Stanford, R. G. (1993). Learning to lure the rabbit: Charles Honorton’s process-relevant ESP research. Journal of Parapsychology, 57, 129-175.

Stanford, R. G., & Stein, A. (1994). A meta-analysis of ESP studies contrasting hypnosis and a comparison condition. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 235-269.

Stanford, R. G. (2003). Research strategies for enhancing conceptual development and replicability. Journal of Parapsychology, 67, 17-51.

Selected (2 of 22) Book Reviews

Stanford, R. G. (1982). Is scientific parapsychology possible? Some thoughts on James E. Alcock's Parapsychology: Science or magic? Journal of Parapsychology, 46, 231-271.

Stanford, R. G. (2000). [Review of the book Deception and self-deception: Investigating psychics]. Journal of Parapsychology, 64, 213-227.

Selected (6 of 30) Abstracts

Stanford, R. G. (1967). Conflicting associative hierarchies (Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International, 28, 2613B-2614B.

Stanford, R. G., Pratt, J. G., & Stevenson, I. (1973). The detection of fraud in a case of alleged dermo-optic perception. In W. G. Roll, R. L. Morris, & J. D. Morris (Eds.), Research in parapsychology 1972 (pp. 30-32). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Stanford, R. G., & Fox C. (1975). An effect of release of effort in a psychokinetic task. In J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in parapsychology 1974 (pp. 61-63). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Stanford, R. G., & Rust, P. (1977). Psi-mediated helping behavior: Experimental paradigm and initial results. In J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in parapsychology 1976 (pp. 109-110). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Zenhausern, R., Stanford, R. G., & Esposito, C. (1977). The application of signal detection theory to clairvoyance and precognition tasks. In J. D. Morris, W. G. Roll, & R. L. Morris (Eds.), Research in parapsychology 1976 (pp. 170-173). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Stanford, R. G., & Lafosse, G. (1980). Type of music, target programming rate, and performance in a motor ESP task. In W. G. Roll (Ed.), Research in parapsychology 1979 (pp. 131-134). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.

Selected (1 of 3) Presentations at American Association for the Advancement of Science Conventions

Stanford, R. G. (1975, December). Scientific, ethical, and clinical problems in the 'training' of psi ability. In The application and misapplication of findings in parapsychology. Symposium conducted at the 142nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

Presentations (inclusive) at American Psychological Association Conventions

Stanford, R. G. (1973, August). An experimentally oriented model for spontaneous psi events. In Parapsychological (psi) processes: Toward a conceptual integration. A symposium sponsored by Div. 1 at the 81st Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Stanford, R. G. (1974, September). Response factors in extrasensory performance. In Parapsychology: Its relations to experimental psychology, altered states, and psychotherapy. A symposium sponsored by Div. 1 at the 82nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.

Stanford, R. G. (1975, August). Experimental studies of nonintentional psychokinesis. In New approaches to the study of psychokinesis. A symposium sponsored by Div. 1 at the 83rd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago.

Stanford, R. G. (1979, September). Cognitive factors in ESP performance. In Merging of humanistic and laboratory traditions in parapsychology. A symposium sponsored by Div. 32 at the 87th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York.

Stanford, R. G., Cutler, S., & Kass, G. (1986, August). Childhood discipline and responsiveness to suggestions: A closer look. A paper presented in the program of Div. 30 (Psychological Hypnosis) at the 94th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Angelini, R. F., & Stanford, R. G. (1987, August). Perceived involuntariness: The interaction of incongruent proprioception and supplied imagery. In W. P. Morgan (Chair), Hypnosis, strategic enactment, and interpretations of involuntariness. Symposium conducted at the 95th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York.

Stanford, R. G. (1991, August). The experimental hypnosis-ESP literature: A review from the hypothesis-testing perspective. In H. L. Radtke (Chair), Hypnosis and anomalous experiences. Symposium conducted at the 99th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.

Presentations (inclusive) at the American Psychological Society (APS) Conventions

Stanford, R. G. (1999, June). Toward making sense of gender findings in hypnosis: An integrative review. Poster presented at the Eleventh Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Denver, CO.

Stanford, R. G., & Rajpal, V. (2004, May). Gender Moderates the Absorption-Suggestibility Correlation When Testing Challenges Male “Agency” Norms. Poster presented  at the 16th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Chicago, IL.

Parapsychological Association (Conventions):

A total of 49 presentations (None are listed here, but a number of the studies presented at PA Conventions are listed elsewhere here as full papers or as abstracts.) Please see Research in Parapsychology (annual volumes).

 

 

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