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About the PA | Member Index Who is Stephen E. Braude?

Stephen Braude Stephen E. Braude is Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Philosophy Department at the University of Maryland Baltimore County.

He studied Philosophy and English at Oberlin College and the University of London, and in 1971 he received his Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

After publishing a number of articles in the philosophy of language, temporal logic, and the philosophy of time, he turned his attention to several related problems in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind — in particular, questions concerning causality, scientific explanation generally, and psychological explanation specifically. One of his overriding concerns was to demonstrate the inadequacy of mechanistic theories in psychology and cognitive science.

Prof. Braude also examined the evidence of parapsychology to see whether it would provide new insights into these and other traditional philosophical issues.

After that, he shifted his focus to problems in philosophical psychopathology, writing extensively on the connections between dissociation and classic philosophical problems as well as central issues in parapsychology—for example, the unity of consciousness, multiple personality and moral responsibility, and the nature of mental mediumship.

Prof. Braude is past President of the Parapsychological Association and the recipient of several grants and fellowships, including Research Fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the BIAL Foundation in Portugal. He has published more than 50 philosophical essays in such journals as NoŻs;The Philosophical Review; Philosophical Studies; Analysis; Inquiry; Philosophia; Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology; The Journal of Scientific Exploration; and The Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.

He has written three books: ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination (Temple University Press, 1979), The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science (Routledge, 1986; revised edition, University Press of America, 1997), and First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind (Routledge, 1991; revised edition, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995).

Recently, Prof. Braude completed a new book on the evidence for life after death.

He is also a professional pianist and composer and a prize-winning stereo photographer.

Selected Publications:


ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination (Revised Edition). Brown Walker Press. ISBN: 1-58112-407-4. 2002

ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination
. Philadelphia: Temple Uni≠versity Press, 1979

The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science. New York & London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986 (2nd ed., 1991).

The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science. Revised Edition. Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America (1997).

First-Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind. New York & London: Routledge, 1991.

First-Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind. Revised Edition. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield (1995).

Immortal Remains: The Evidence for Life After Death (in preparation).


On the Meaning of "Paranormal." In Jan K. Ludwig (ed.) Philosophy and Parapsychology. New York: Prometheus Press, 1978: 227-44.

Telepathy. NoŻs 12 (1978): 267-30l.

Objections to an Information-Theoretic Approach to Synchronicity. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 179-193.

Reply to Dr. Gatlin. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 325-330.

Reply to Drs. Rudolph and Stanford. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 74 (1980): 258-263.

The Observational Theories in Parapsychology: A Critique. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 73 (1979): 349-366.

Commentary on Hyman's "Pathological Science". Zetetic Scholar No. 6 (1980): 42-43. Reprinted in R. Hyman, The Elusive Quarry (Buffalo: Prometheus, 1989): 254-56.

Taxonomy and Theory in Psychokinesis. In B. Shapin & L. Coly (eds.), Concepts and Theories of Parapsychology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation, 1981: 37-54.

The Holographic Analysis of Near-Death Experiences: The Perpetuation of Some Deep Mistakes. Essence: Issues in the Study of Aging, Dying and Death 5 (1981): 53-63.

Precognitive Attrition and Theoretical Parsimony. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 76 (1982): 143-155.

Radical Provincialism in the Life Sciences: A Review of Rupert Sheldrake's A New Science of Life. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 77 (1983): 63-78.

Reply to M.H. Coleman. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 53 (1986): 244-246.

Psi and Our Picture of the World. Inquiry 30 (1987): 277-294.

When Science is Non-Scientific. Journal of Near Death Studies 6 (1987): 113-118.

Death by Observation: A Reply to Millar. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82 (1988): 273-280.

How to Dismiss Evidence Without Really Trying. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1987): 573-574.

Some Recent Books on Multiple Personality and Dissociation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 82 (1988): 339-352.

Mediumship and Multiple Personality. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 55 (1988): 177-195.

Evaluating the Super-Psi Hypothesis. In G.K. Zollschan, J.F. Schumaker, and G.F. Walsh (eds), Exploring the Paranormal: Perspectives on Belief and Experience. Dorset: Prism, 1989: 25-38.

Survival or Super-Psi? Journal of Scientific Exploration 6 (1992): 127-144. Reprinted in Darshana International 32 (1992): 8-28.

Reply to Stevenson. Journal of Scientific Exploration 6 (1992): 151-155.

Getting Clear About Wholeness. In K.R. Rao (ed.) Cultivating Consciousness. New York: Praeger, 1993: 25-37.

Psi and the Nature of Abilities. Journal of Parapsychology 56 (1992): 205-228. Also in J. Morris (ed.) Research in Parapsychology 1991. Metuchen, N.J. & London: Scarecrow Press, 1994: 193-220.

The Fear of Psi Revisited, or It's the Thought that Counts. ASPR Newsletter 28, No. 1 (1993): 8-11.

Does Awareness Require a Location?: A Response to Woodhouse. New Ideas in Psychology 12 (1994): 17-21.

Dissociation and Survival: A Reappraisal of the Evidence. In L. Coly & J.D.S. McMahon (eds.), Parapsychology and Thanatology. New York: Parapsychology Foundation (1995): 208-228.

ESP Phenomena, Philosophical Implications Of. In D.M. Borchert (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Supplement. New York: Macmillan (1996): 146-147.

Postmortem Survival: The State of the Debate. In M. Stoeber and H. Meynell (eds), Critical Reflections on the Paranormal. Albany: SUNY Press (1996): 177-196.

Braude's Reply to Almeder's "Recent Responses to Survival Research". Journal of Scientific Exploration 10 (1996): 519-523.

Some Thoughts on Parapsychology and Religion. In C. Tart (ed), Body, Mind, Spirit. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads (1997): 118-127.

Reply to Dr. Cook's Review. Journal of Parapsychology 6 (1997): 49-52.

Peirce on the Paranormal. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 34 (1998): 199-220.

Terminological Reform in Parapsychology: A Giant Step Backwards. Journal of Scientific Exploration 12 (1998): 141-150.

Paranormal Phenomena. In E. Craig (ed), Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London & New York: Routledge (1998).

Dissociation and Latent Abilities: The Strange Case of Patience Worth. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 1 (2000): 13-48.

The Problem of Super Psi. In F. Steinkamp (ed), Parapsychology, Philosophy, and the Mind: A Festschrift in Honor of John Beloff's 80th Birthday. Jefferson, NC & London: McFarland (forthcoming).

Out-of-Body Experiences and Survival of Death. International Journal of Parapsychology 12 (2001): 77-122.



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